250ml Volumetric analysis standards and solutions
Preparation of 0.1M and 0.1N Volumetric analysis titration Standards
This page gives info on the weight of salt required to make up 250 ml volumetric analysis standards for titration against acid base, permanganate, dichromate, iodine, sodium thiosulphate and silver nitrate. The weight was calculated according to the reaction process of the particular determination. Concentrations are expressed in molarity, normality and equivalents.
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Acid / base
titrations Oxidation /
Reduction permanganate and
dichromate Iodometry iodine and
thiosulphate
Precipitation titrations silver nitrate
Acid / Base Titrations
Example for the info on this page:
Sodium carbonate
Na2CO3, FW = 106, Eq. =53g/l
250ml 0.05M = 1.325g = 0.1N 
In this example, the FW or Formula weight (Molecular weight) of the salt is 106. Eq. is the equivalent weight which is 53 grams per liter. And 1.325 grams dissolved up to mark in 250 ml volumetric flask will give a 0.05 M standard solution or a 0.1N standard solution. 
Ammonium sulphate (NH4)_{2}SO4. FW = 132.14, Eq. = 66g/l. 250ml 0.05M = 1.325g =
0.1N 
Adipic acid HO_{2}C(CH2)_{4}CO_{2}H, FW = 146.4, Eq. = 73.03g/l
250ml 0.05M = 1.83g = 0.1N

Barium hydroxide
Ba(OH)_{2}.8H2O, FW = 315.48, Eq. = 157.5g/l
250ml 0.05M = 3.94g = 0.1N

Benzoic acid C_{6}H_{5}COOH, FW = 122.12, Eq. = 61g/l
250ml 0.05M = 1.52g = 0.1N

Calcium carbonate CaCO_{3}, FW = 100.00, Eq. = 50g/l
250ml 0.05M = 1.25g = 0.1N

Furroic acid FW = 112.08, Eq. = 112g/l
250ml 0.1M = 2.8g = 0.1N

Hydrochloric acid HCl, FW = 36.5, Density = 1.2
1M = 83mls = 1N (Use 86mls)
250ml 0.1M = 2mls = 0.1N
1 liter 0.1M soln = 8.6mls = 0.1N

Oxalic acid
H_{2}C_{2}O_{4}.2H_{2}O, FW = 126.07, Eq. = 63g/l
250ml 0.05M = 1.575g = 0.1N

Potassium hydrogen phthalate
KH(C_{8}H_{4}O_{4}), FW = 204.23, Eq. =204g/l
250ml 0.1M = 5.105g = 0.1N

Potassiun hydrogen iodate
KH(IO_{3})_{2}, FW = 389.92, Eq. 73.07g/l
250ml 0.1M = 9.75g = 0.1N

Sodium carbonate Na_{2}CO_{3}, FW = 106, Eq. =53g/l
250ml 0.05M = 1.325g = 0.1N

Sodium hydroxide NaOH, FW = 40, Eq. = 40g/l
250ml 0.1M = 1.0g = 0.1N
1 liter 0.1M soln = 4g = 0.1N

Sodium oxalate Na_{2}C_{2}O_{4}, FW = 134.00, Eq. =134g/l
250 0.1M = 3.35g = 0.1N

Sodium tetraborate
NaB_{4}O_{7}.10H_{2}O, FW = 381.37, Eq. =190g/l
250ml 0.05M = 4.762g =0.1N

Succinic acid HO_{2}CCH_{2}CH_{2}CO_{2}H, FW = 118.09, Eq. = 59.045g/l
250ml 0.05M = 1.475g = 0.1N

Sulphamic acid H_{2}NSO_{3}H, FW = 97.09, Eq. = 99.09g/l
250ml 0.10M = 2.425 = 0.1N

Sulphuric acid H_{2}SO_{4}, FW = 98.08, Density = 1.8
1M = 56mls = 2N
250ml 0.05M = 0.7mls = 0.1N
1 liter 0.05M = 2.8mls = 0.1N (use 3 mls)

Tris (hydroxymethyl)aminomethane H_{2}N.C(CH_{2}OH)_{3}, FW = 121.14, Eq. = 121g/l
250ml 0.1M = 3.023g =0.1N

Titrations with Permanganate
5Na_{2}C_{2}O_{4} + 2KMnO_{4} +
8H_{2}SO_{4} = 10CO_{2} + 2MnSO_{4} +
5Na_{2}SO_{4} + 8H_{2}O
Reaction of Potassium permanganate and Sodium oxalate 
Ammonium oxalate (NH4)_{2}C_{2}O_{4}, FW = 124, Eq. = 62g/l
250ml 0.05M = 1.55g = 0.1N

Ferrous ammonium sulphate
FeSO_{4}(NH_{4})_{2}SO_{4}.6H_{2}O, FW = 392, Eq. 392g/l
250ml 0.1M = 9.8g = 0.1N (add a few drops of conc. H2SO4 to clear)

Hhdrogen peroxide
H_{2}O_{2}, FW = 34. Eq. = 17g/l
10 Vol. = 3%
20 Vol. = 6% = 1.8M
100 Vol. = 30%
250ml 0.05M = 12.50ml of 20 Vol. = 0.1N
1 liter 0.05M = 50ml of 20 Vol. = 0.1N (add 2 mls conc. H2SO4 per
liter soln)
1 liter 0.05M = 10mls of 100 Vol.
1 liter 0.05M =35mls of 30 Vol.
Volume strength = 11.2/34 x strongth of peroxide in g/l

Iron allum (ferric ammonium sulphate)
FeNH_{4}(SO4)_{2}.12H_{2}O, FW = 482.19, Eq. =241g/l
250ml 0.05M = 6.02g = 0.1N
Oxalic acid (anhyd.)
H_{2}C_{2}O_{4}, FW = 90, Eq. = 45g/l
250ml 0.05M =1.125g = 0.1N

Potassium permanganate
KMnO_{4}, FW =158.04, Eq. ==31.6g/l
250ml 0.02M = 0.79g = 0.1N (dissolve in hot water)
1 liter 0.02M = 3.16g = 0.1N (boil to dissolve crystals, then dilute to
1liter)

Sodium nitrite
NaNO_{2}, FW = 69.00, Eq. = 34.56/l
250ml 0.05M = 0.86g = 0.1N (use 1g)
Sodium oxalate
Na_{2}C_{2}0_{4}, FW = 234, Eq. = 67g/l
250ml 0.05M = 1.675g = 0.1N

Titrations with Dichromate
K_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7} +
6Fe(NH_{4})_{2}(SO_{4})_{2} + 7H_{2}O_{4} =
3Fe_{2}(SO_{4})_{3} + Cr_{2}(SO_{4})_{3} +
K_{2}SO_{4} + 6(NH_{4})_{2}SO_{4} +
7H_{2}O
Reaction of Potassium dichromate and Ammonium ferrous sulphate 
Potassium dichromate
K_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7}, FW = 294, Eq. = 49g/l
250ml 0.0167M = 1.22g = 0.1N
1 liter 0.0167M = 4.90g = 0.1N
Potassium iodate
KIO_{3}, FW = 214, Eq. = 35.73g/l
250ml 0.0167M = 0.892g = 0.1N

Tin, Sn, FW = 119.0, Eq. = 59.5g/l
Tin (11) chloride (use metallic
tin dissolved in conc. HCl)
250ml 0.05M = 1.49g = 0.1N
Spathic iron ore
FeCO_{3}, FW = 116, Eq. = 116g/l
250ml 0.1M = 2.9g = 0.1N

Titrations with iodine and Thiosulphate
I_{2} + 2Na_{2}S_{2}O_{3} =
Na_{2}S_{4}O_{6} + 2NaI
Reaction of Iodine and Sodium thiosulphate 
Sodium thiosulphate
Na_{2}S_{2}O_{3}.5H_{2}O, FW = 248.18, Eq. = 248g/l
250ml 0.1M = 6.2g = 0.1N
1 liter 0.1M = 24.8g = 0.1N

Potassium iodide
KI, FW = 166, Eq. =166g/l
250ml 0.1M = 4.15g = 0.1N
1liter = 0.1M 16.6g = 0.1N

Potassium iodate
KIO_{3}, FW = 214 Eq. = 35.73g/l
250ml 0.0167M = 0.892g = 0.1N

Iodine, I_{2}
FW = 253.18, Eq. = 127g/l
1 liter 0.05M = 12.7g = 0.1N
(use 13g Iodine and add 25g KI

Copper sulphate CuSO_{4}.5H_{2}O, FW = 249.68, Eq. = 249.68g/l
250ml 0.1M = 6.24g = 0.1N
Note: add anhy. NaCO3 untill a slight permanent bluish colour is
formed. Add a little acetic acid to get a clear blue colour, then make
up to the mark.

Copper sulphate, anhydrous
CuSO_{4}, FW = 159.6, Eq. = 159.6g/l
250ml 0.1M = 4g =0.1N 
Bleaching powder CaOCl_{2}, FW = 145, Eq. = 72,5g/l
250ml 0.05M = 1.81g = 0,1N
(use 2.5g)

Sodium sulphite Na_{2}SO_{3}.5H_{2}O, FW = 126.04, Eq. = 63g/l
250ml 0.05M = 1.57g = 0.1N

Titrations with Silver Nitrate
1. AgNO_{3} + NaCl = AgCl = NaNO_{3} and
K_{2}CrO_{4} + 2AgNO_{3} = Ag_{2}CrO_{4} +
2KNO_{3}
2. AgNO_{3} + KSCN = AgSCN + KNO_{3} and AgSCN + Fe^{3+} indicator =
[FeSCN]^{+2}

Silver nitrate
AgNO_{3}, FW = 170, Eq. =170g/l
250ml 0.1M = 4.25g = 0.1N
Sodium chloride
NaCl, FW = 58.5, Eq. = 58.5g/l
250ml 0.1M = 1.4625g = 0.1N

Potassium chromate
K_{2}CrO_{4}, FW = 194.20, Eq. =32.4g/l
250ml 0.0167M = 0.81g = 0.1N
1 liter 0.0167M = 3.24g = 0.1N
(add a few mls dil. H2SO4 to clear)

Ammonium thiocyanate
NH_{4}CNS, FW = 76.12, Eq. = 76.12g/l
250ml 0.1M = 1.9g = 0.1N
1 liter 0.1M = 7.6g = 0.1N

Potassium thiocyanate
KCNS, FW = 97.18, Eq. = 97g/l
250ml 0.1M = 2.4g = 0.1N (use 3g)
1 liter 0.1M = 9.74g = 0.1N (use 12g)

