## 250ml Volumetric analysis standards and solutions

Preparation of 0.05M and 0.1N Volumetric analysis titration Standards

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Acid / base titrationsOxidation / Reductionpermanganate and dichromateIodometryiodine and thiosulphate

Precipitation titrations

silver nitrate

Example for the info on this page:

Sodium carbonate

Na_{2}CO_{3}, FW = 106, Eq. =53g/l

250ml 0.05M = 1.325g = 0.1N

In this example, the FW or Formula weight (Molecular weight) of the salt is 106. Eq. is the equivalent weight which is 53 grams per liter. And 1.325 grams dissolved up to mark in 250 ml volumetric flask will give a 0.05 M standard solution or a 0.1N standard solution.

## Acid / Base Titrations

Ammonium sulphate

(NH4)_{2}SO4. FW = 132.14, 1M = 132.14g/l

Eq. = 66.07g/l. = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 6.607g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M

250ml = 1.652g = 0.1N or 0.05M std.

Adipic acid

HO_{2}C(CH2)_{4}CO_{2}H, FW = 146.4, Eq. = 73.03g/l

250ml 0.05M = 1.83g = 0.1NBarium hydroxide

Ba(OH)_{2}.8H2O, FW = 315.48, Eq. = 157.5g/l

250ml 0.05M = 3.94g = 0.1NBenzoic acid

C_{6}H_{5}COOH, FW = 122.12, Eq. = 61g/l

250ml 0.05M = 1.52g = 0.1NCalcium carbonate

CaCO_{3}, FW = 100.00, Eq. = 50g/l

250ml 0.05M = 1.25g = 0.1NFurroic acid

FW = 112.08, Eq. = 112g/l

250ml 0.1M = 2.8g = 0.1NHydrochloric acid

HCl, FW = 36.5, Density = 1.2

1M = 83mls = 1N (Use 86mls)

250ml 0.1M = 2mls = 0.1N

1 liter 0.1M soln = 8.6mls = 0.1NOxalic acid

H_{2}C_{2}O_{4}.2H_{2}O, FW = 126.07, Eq. = 63g/l

250ml 0.05M = 1.575g = 0.1NPotassium hydrogen phthalate

KH(C_{8}H_{4}O_{4}), FW = 204.23, Eq. =204g/l

250ml 0.1M = 5.105g = 0.1NPotassiun hydrogen iodate

KH(IO_{3})_{2}, FW = 389.92, Eq. 73.07g/l

250ml 0.1M = 9.75g = 0.1NSodium carbonate

Na_{2}CO_{3}, FW = 106, Eq. =53g/l

250ml 0.05M = 1.325g = 0.1NSodium hydroxide

NaOH, FW = 40, Eq. = 40g/l

250ml 0.1M = 1.0g = 0.1N

1 liter 0.1M soln = 4g = 0.1NSodium oxalate

Na_{2}C_{2}O_{4}, FW = 134.00, Eq. =134g/l

250 0.1M = 3.35g = 0.1NSodium tetraborate

NaB_{4}O_{7}.10H_{2}O, FW = 381.37, Eq. =190g/l

250ml 0.05M = 4.762g =0.1NSuccinic acid

HO_{2}CCH_{2}CH_{2}CO_{2}H, FW = 118.09, Eq. = 59.045g/l

250ml 0.05M = 1.475g = 0.1NSulphamic acid

H_{2}NSO_{3}H, FW = 97.09, Eq. = 99.09g/l

250ml 0.10M = 2.425 = 0.1NSulphuric acid

H_{2}SO_{4}, FW = 98.08, Density = 1.8

1M = 56mls = 2N

250ml 0.05M = 0.7mls = 0.1N

1 liter 0.05M = 2.8mls = 0.1N (use 3 mls)Tris (hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane

H_{2}N.C(CH_{2}OH)_{3}, FW = 121.14, Eq. = 121g/l

250ml 0.1M = 3.023g =0.1N

## Titrations with Permanganate

5Na_{2}C_{2}O_{4}+ 2KMnO_{4}+ 8H_{2}SO_{4}= 10CO_{2}+ 2MnSO_{4}+ 5Na_{2}SO_{4}+ 8H_{2}O

Reaction of Potassium permanganate and Sodium oxalateAmmonium oxalate

(NH4)_{2}C_{2}O_{4}, FW = 124, Eq. = 62g/l

250ml 0.05M = 1.55g = 0.1NFerrous ammonium sulphate

FeSO_{4}(NH_{4})_{2}SO_{4}.6H_{2}O, FW = 392, Eq. 392g/l

250ml 0.1M = 9.8g = 0.1N (add a few drops of conc. H2SO4 to clear)Hydrogen peroxide

H_{2}O_{2}, FW = 34. Eq. = 17g/l = 1N = 1M

10 Vol. = 3%

20 Vol. = 6% = 1.8M

100 Vol. = 30%

250ml 0.05M = 12.50ml of 20 Vol. = 0.1N

1 liter 0.05M = 50ml of 20 Vol. = 0.1N (add 2 mls conc. H2SO4 per Volume strength = 11.2/34 x strongth of peroxide in g/lIron allum (ferric ammonium sulphate)

FeNH_{4}(SO4)_{2}.12H_{2}O, FW = 482.19, Eq. =241g/l

250ml 0.05M = 6.02g = 0.1N

Oxalic acid (anhyd.)

H_{2}C_{2}O_{4}, FW = 90, Eq. = 45g/l

250ml 0.05M =1.125g = 0.1NPotassium permanganate

KMnO_{4}, FW =158.04, Eq. ==31.6g/l

250ml 0.02M = 0.79g = 0.1N (dissolve in hot water)

1 liter 0.02M = 3.16g = 0.1N (boil to dissolve crystals, then dilute to 1liter)Sodium nitrite

NaNO_{2}, FW = 69.00, Eq. = 34.56/l

250ml 0.05M = 0.86g = 0.1N (use 1g)

Sodium oxalate

Na_{2}C_{2}0_{4}, FW = 234, Eq. = 67g/l

250ml 0.05M = 1.675g = 0.1N

## Titrations with Dichromate

K_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7}+ 6Fe(NH_{4})_{2}(SO_{4})_{2}+ 7H_{2}O_{4}= 3Fe_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}+ Cr_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}+ K_{2}SO_{4}+ 6(NH_{4})_{2}SO_{4}+ 7H_{2}O

Reaction of Potassium dichromate and Ammonium ferrous sulphatePotassium dichromate

K_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7}, FW = 294, Eq. = 49g/l

250ml 0.0167M = 1.22g = 0.1N

1 liter 0.0167M = 4.90g = 0.1N

Potassium iodate

KIO_{3}, FW = 214, Eq. = 35.73g/l

250ml 0.0167M = 0.892g = 0.1NTin, Sn,

FW = 119.0, Eq. = 59.5g/l

Tin (11) chloride(use metallic tin dissolved in conc. HCl)

250ml 0.05M = 1.49g = 0.1N

Spathic iron ore

FeCO_{3}, FW = 116, Eq. = 116g/l

250ml 0.1M = 2.9g = 0.1N

## Titrations with iodine and Thiosulphate

I_{2}+ 2Na_{2}S_{2}O_{3}= Na_{2}S_{4}O_{6}+ 2NaI

Reaction of Iodine and Sodium thiosulphateSodium thiosulphate

Na_{2}S_{2}O_{3}.5H_{2}O, FW = 248.18, Eq. = 248g/l

250ml 0.1M = 6.2g = 0.1N

1 liter 0.1M = 24.8g = 0.1N

Potassium iodide

KI, FW = 166, Eq. =166g/l

250ml 0.1M = 4.15g = 0.1N

1liter = 0.1M 16.6g = 0.1N

Potassium iodate

KIO_{3}, FW = 214 Eq. = 35.73g/l

250ml 0.0167M = 0.892g = 0.1N

Iodine, I_{2}

FW = 253.18, Eq. = 127g/l

1 liter 0.05M = 12.7g = 0.1N

(use 13g Iodine and add 25g KI

Copper sulphate

CuSO_{4}.5H_{2}O, FW = 249.68, Eq. = 249.68g/l

250ml 0.1M = 6.24g = 0.1N

Note: add anhy. NaCO3 untill a slight permanent bluish colour is formed. Add a little acetic acid to get a clear blue colour, then make up to the mark.Copper sulphate, anhydrous

CuSO_{4}, FW = 159.6, Eq. = 159.6g/l

250ml 0.1M = 4g =0.1NBleaching powder

CaOCl_{2}, FW = 145, Eq. = 72,5g/l

250ml 0.05M = 1.81g = 0,1N

(use 2.5g)Sodium sulphite

Na_{2}SO_{3}.5H_{2}O, FW = 126.04, Eq. = 63g/l

250ml 0.05M = 1.57g = 0.1N

## Titrations with Silver Nitrate

1. AgNO_{3}+ NaCl = AgCl = NaNO_{3}and K_{2}CrO_{4}+ 2AgNO_{3}= Ag_{2}CrO_{4}+ 2KNO_{3}

2. AgNO_{3}+ KSCN = AgSCN + KNO_{3}and AgSCN + Fe^{3+}indicator = [FeSCN]^{+2}Silver nitrate

AgNO_{3}, FW = 170, Eq. =170g/l

250ml 0.1M = 4.25g = 0.1N

Sodium chloride

NaCl, FW = 58.5, Eq. = 58.5g/l

250ml 0.1M = 1.4625g = 0.1NPotassium chromate

K_{2}CrO_{4}, FW = 194.20, Eq. =32.4g/l

250ml 0.0167M = 0.81g = 0.1N

1 liter 0.0167M = 3.24g = 0.1N

(add a few mls dil. H2SO4 to clear)

Ammonium thiocyanate

NH_{4}CNS, FW = 76.12, Eq. = 76.12g/l

250ml 0.1M = 1.9g = 0.1N

1 liter 0.1M = 7.6g = 0.1N

Potassium thiocyanate

KCNS, FW = 97.18, Eq. = 97g/l

250ml 0.1M = 2.4g = 0.1N (use 3g)

1 liter 0.1M = 9.74g = 0.1N (use 12g)

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