Analytical chemistry Trinidad & 

Tobago Lab resources
Delloyd's Lab Tech resources reagents and Solutions

Concentrated acids, bases and ammonia ¹

This page provides info on how to dilute and prepare 1 molar (1M) solutions of
acids, bases, and ammonia.
Quantities used are approximate and acceptable for practical qualitative purposes, taking into account the hydrogroscopic, volatile or adsorption nature of the reagents.

CONCENTRATED ACIDS

Acids Molarity Percent S.G. To make 1M soln
Acetic acid
MW=60.05
17.4M 99% 1.05 58 mls / liter
HCl
MW=36.46
11.6M 36% 1.18 Use 86 mls / lliter
Nitric acid
MW=63.01
16.4M 69% 1.42 61 mls / liter
H2SO4
MW=98.07
17.6M
36N
95% 1.84 56 mls / liter(1M)
28 mls / liter (1N)
Ammonia soln
MW=35.05
14.5M 28% 0.88 69 mls / liter (1M)
Use 71 mls / liter (1M)
Hydrobromic acid 9 N 48% 1.49 111 mls /liter (1M)
Hydrofluoric acid
MW=20.01
27M 48% 1.29 37 mls /liter (1M)
Hydriodic acid 7M 57% 1.70 143 mls /liter (1M)
Perchloric acid
MW=100.46
11.7M
9.5M
70%
61%
1.71
1.66
85.5mls /liter (1M)
106 mls /liter (1M)
Phosphoric acid
MW=97.99
45N
15M
88% 1.69 22.5 mls /liter (1N)
68 mls /liter (1M)

DILUTE ACIDS


Acetic Acid
Dilute 116 mls.of the concentrated acid to 1 litre of water. (2M)
Hydrochloric Acid
Dilute 172 mls. of the concentrated acid to 1 litre with water.(2M)
Nitric Acid
Dilute 122mls. of the concentrated acid to 1 liter with water. (2M)
Sulphuric Acid
Pour 56 mls.of the concentrated acid slowly and with constant stirring into about 500mls. of water, cool, and dilute to 1 litre. (1M)
Sulphurous Acid
Prepare a saturated solution of SO2 in water. 6-7% by weght.



DILUTE BASES


Ammonia solution conc.
The commercial product, S.G. 0.88 contains about 28% NH3. (15N)
Ammonia solution dilute
Dilute 335 ml of the commercial solution to 1 liter (5N)
Barium hydroxide
Shake 70 gms. of crystalised salt in 1 liter of water. Filter or siphon off the liquid , and protect from CO2 of the air 0.2M
Calcium hydroxide
Shake 2-3 gms. of calcium hydroxide with 1 liter of water. Filter or siphon off liquid, and protest from CO2 of the air. 0.02M
Potassium hydroxide
Dissolve 112 gms. of KOH pellets in water , and dilute to 1 liter. (2M)
Sodium hydroxide
Dissolve 200 gm pellets in water and dilute to 1 liter. (5M)

Concentrated Bases ²

Concentrated bases or alkalis are sold as w/w % solutions and labelled Concentrated Reagent.
Table below give info on three commonly used bases.


Concentrated Reagent Molarity Percent S.G. To make 1M soln
Ammonium Hydroxide (NH4OH)
MW=35.05
14.5M 28% NH3 0.88 69.0 mls / liter
Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)
MW=40
19.4M 50% 1.54 51.5 mls / lliter
Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
MW=56.12
11.7M 45% 1.46 85.5 mls / liter



References:

1. A.I. Vogel "Textbook of Inorganic Quantitatiuve Analysis" 3rd. Ed., Longman (1961). (Appendix)
2. J. T. Baker Chemical Company.


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Signature: Dhanlal De Lloyd, Chem. Dept, The University of The West Indies, St. Augustine campus
The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.
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