1. Alcoholic silver nitrate solution. (2% in abs. Alcohol)
2. Sodium iodide in acetone. (7.5g. in 50ml. AR acetone)
Aldehydes and ketones
1. 2:4 Dinitrophenylhydrazine. (Method 1. Suspend 2.0g. of 2:4 dinitrophenylhydrazine in 100ml. of methanol. Cautiously and slowly add 4.0ml. of conc. Sulphuric acid. Filter if nessary.)
Method 2. Dissolve 0.25g. of the reagent in a mixture of 42ml. conc.HCl and 50ml. of water by warming on a water bath; dilute to 50 ml. with distilled water.This reagert is more suitable for water soluble aldehydes and ketones since alcohol is abscent.
1. Schiffs reagent.(fuchsin aldehyde reagent)
Method (1) Dissolve 0.2g. of pure p-rosaniline hydrochloride in 20ml. freshly prepared saturated aqueous solution of solphur dioxide. Dilute to 200ml. and keep in tightly stoppered bottle.
Method (2) Add 2g. of sodium bisulphite to a solution of 0.2g.of p-rosaniline hydrochloride and 2ml. of conc. HCl in 200ml. of water.
2. Fehlings solution.
Solution no. 1. Dissolve 34.64g. of AR copper sulphate crystals in water containing a few drops of dilute sulphuric acid and dilute to 600ml.)
Solution no. 2. Dissolve 60g. of NaOH and 173g. of sodium potassium tartrate in water and dilute to 500ml.
Keep the two solutions separately in tightly stoppered bottles and mix exactly equal volumes immediately before use.
Solution A. (3g. of silver nitrate in 30ml. of water)
Solution B. (3g. of NaOH in 30ml. of water)
Mix equal volumes of A and B (1ml) and add dilute ammonia solution drop by drop until the silver oxide is just redissolved. Use this as the reagent.
Esters and anhydrides
1. Hydroxamic acid test.( 5% ferric chloride added in presence of 0.5N hydroxylamine hydrochloride in 95% ethanol and 6N sodium hydroxide solution.)
2. Saponification; saponification equivalent.(Aqueous sodium hydroxide method and the diethylene glycol method)
1. Sodium together with reaction 2.
2. Acetyl chloride or benzoyl chloride.
3. Hydrochloric acid / zinc chloride reagent.(Lucas Test - differentiate between primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols) Dissolve 68g (0.5mole) of anhydrous zinc chloride in 52.5g (0.5mole) conc. HCl with cooling to avoid loss of hydrogen chloride.
1. Sodium.(no reaction)
2. Acetyl chloride.(no reaction)
3. Hydriodic acid.- constant boiling point 126-128oC.- fission of ester