## Preparation of 250ml 0.05M and 0.1N Volumetric analysis

titration Standards

This page gives the weight of pure, dry salt required to make up A 250 ml volumetric analysis primary standard for each titration against acid base, permanganate, dichromate, iodine, sodium thiosulphate and silver nitrate. Concentrations are expressed in normality or molarity and given in values of 0.1N, 0.05M, or 0.002M.

Example for the info on this page:

Sodium carbonate

Na_{2}CO_{3}, FW = 106, 1M = 106g/l

Eq.wt. = 53g/l = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 5.30g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M

250ml = 1.325g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

In this example, the FW or Formula weight (Molecular weight) of the salt is 106. Eq.wt. is the Equivalent Weight which is 53 grams per liter. And 1.325 grams (g/l divided by 4) dissolved up to mark in 250 ml volumetric flask will give a 0.1N standard solution or a 0.05M standard solution.

## Acid / Base Titrations

Ammonium sulphate

NH4)_{2}SO4. FW = 132.14, 1M = 132.14g/l

Eq.wt. = 66.07g/l = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 6.607g/l = 0.1N =0.05M

250ml = 1.652g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

Adipic acid

HO_{2}C(CH2)_{4}CO_{2}H FW = 146.4, 1M = 146.4g/l

Eq.wt. = 73.03g/l =1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 7.303g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M

250ml = 1.83g = 0.1N or 0.05M std. soln.Barium hydroxide

Ba(OH)_{2}.8H2O, FW = 315.48, 1M = 315.48g/l

Eq.wt. = 157.5g/l = 1N or 0.5M

1 liter = 15.75g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M

250ml = 3.94g =0.1N or 0.05M std. soln.Benzoic acid

C_{6}H_{5}COOH, FW = 122.12, 1M = 122.12g/l

Eq.wt. = 61.06g/l = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 6.106g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M

250ml = 1.52g = 0.1N or 0.05M std. soln.Calcium carbonate

CaCO_{3}, FW = 100.00, 1M = 100g/l

Eq.wt. = 50g/l = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 5.0g/l = 0.1N =0.05M

250ml = 1.25g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

Furroic acid

FW = 112.08, 1M = 112.08g/l

Eq.wt. = 112.08 = 1N = 1M

1 liter = 11.2g/l = 0.1N =0.1M

250ml = 2.8g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.

Hydrochloric acid

HCl, FW = 36.5, Density = 1.2

1M = 83mls = 1N = 1M (Use 86mls)

250ml = 2mls = 0.1N = 0.1N

1 liter = 8.6mls = 0.1N or 0.1M soln.

Oxalic acid

H_{2}C_{2}O_{4}.2H_{2}O, FW = 126.07, 1M = 126.07g/l

Eq.wt. = 63.03g/l = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 6.303g/l = 0.1N =0.05M

250ml = 1.575g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

Potassium hydrogen phthalate

KH(C_{8}H_{4}O_{4}), FW = 204.23, 1M 204.23g/l

Eq.wt. = 204.23g/l = 1N = 1M

1 liter = 204.23g/l = 0.1N =0.1M

250ml = 5.105g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.

Potassiun hydrogen iodate

KH(IO_{3})_{2}, FW = 389.92, 1M = 389.82g/l

Eq.wt. = 77.98g/l = 1N = 0.2M

1 liter = 7.798g/l = 0.1N =0.02M

250ml = 1.95g = 0.IN or 0.02M std. soln.

Sodium carbonate

Na_{2}CO_{3}, FW = 106, 1M = 106g/l

Eq.wt. = 53g/l = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 5.30g/l = 0.1N =0.05M

250ml = 1.325g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

Sodium hydroxide

NaOH, FW = 40, 1M = 40g/l

Eq.wt. = 40.00g/l = 1N = 1M

1 liter = 4.0g/l = 0.1N =0.1M

250ml = 1.00g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.

Sodium oxalate

Na_{2}C_{2}O_{4}, FW = 134.00, 1M = 134g/l

Eq.wt. = 134g/l = 1N = 1M

1 liter = 13.40g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M

250ml = 3.35g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.

Sodium tetraborate

NaB_{4}O_{7}.10H_{2}O, FW = 381.37, 1M = 381.37g/l

Eq.wt. = 190.685g/l = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 190.68g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M

250ml = 4.767g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

Succinic acid

HO_{2}CCH_{2}CH_{2}CO_{2}H, FW = 118.09, 1M = 118.09g/l

Eq.wt. = 59.045g/l = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 5.9.045g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M

250ml = 1.475g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

Sulphamic acid

H_{2}NSO_{3}H, FW = 97.09, 1M = 97.09g/l

Eq.wt. = 97.09g/l = 1N = 1M

1 liter = 9.709g/l = 0.1N =0.1M

250ml = 2.427g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.

Sulphuric acid

H_{2}SO_{4}, FW = 98.08, Density = 1.8

1 liter = 56mls = 2N = 1M

1 liter = 28mls = 1N = 0.05M

1 liter = 2.8mls = 0.1N or 0.05M (use 3 mls)

250ml = 0.7mls = 0.1N = 0.05M std.

Tris (hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane

H_{2}N.C(CH_{2}OH)_{3}, FW = 121.14, 1M = 121.14g/l

Eq.wt. = 121.14g/l = 1N = 1M

1 liter = 12.114g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M

250ml = 3.023g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.

## Titrations with Permanganate

5Na_{2}C_{2}O_{4}+ 2KMnO_{4}+ 8H_{2}SO_{4}= 10CO_{2}+ 2MnSO_{4}+ 5Na_{2}SO_{4}+ 8H_{2}O

Reaction of Potassium permanganate and Sodium oxalateAmmonium oxalate

(NH4)_{2}C_{2}O_{4}, FW = 124, 1M = 124g/l

Eq.wt. = 62g/l = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 6.20g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M

250ml = 1.55g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

Ferrous ammonium sulphate

FeSO_{4}(NH_{4})_{2}SO_{4}.6H_{2}O, FW = 392, 1M = 392g/l

Eq.wt. = 392g/l = 1N = 1M

1 liter = 39.20g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M

250ml = 9.8g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln. (add a few drops of conc. H2SO4 to clear)

Hhdrogen peroxide

H_{2}O_{2}, FW = 34. Eq. = 17g/l

10 Vol. = 3%

20 Vol. = 6% = 1.8M

100 Vol. = 30%

250ml 0.05M = 12.50ml of 20 Vol. = 0.1N

1 liter 0.05M = 50ml of 20 Vol. = 0.1N (add 2 mls conc. H2SO4 per liter soln)

Volume strength = 11.2/34 x strength of peroxide in g/l

Iron allum (ferric ammonium sulphate)

FeNH_{4}(SO4)_{2}.12H_{2}O, FW = 482.19, 1M = 482.19g/l

Eq.wt. = 241g/l = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 24.10g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M

250ml = 6.02g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

Oxalic acid (anhyd.)

H_{2}C_{2}O_{4}, FW = 90, 1M = 90gm/l

Eq.wt. = 45g/l = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 4.5g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M

250ml = 1.125g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

Potassium permanganate

KMnO_{4}, FW =158.04, 1M = 158.04g/l

Eq. ==31.6g/l

Eq.wt. = 31.6g/l = 1N = 0.2M

1 liter = 3.16g/l = 0.1N = 0.02M (boil to dissolve crystals, then dilute to 1 liter)

250ml = 0.79g = 0.IN or 0.02M std. soln.(dissolve in hot water)

Sodium nitrite

NaNO_{2}, FW = 69.00, 1M = 69g/l

Eq. = 34.56/l

Eq.wt. = 34.56g/l = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 3.456g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M

250ml = 0.86g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln. (use 1 gram)

250ml 0.05M = 0.86g = 0.1N (use 1g)

Sodium oxalate

Na_{2}C_{2}0_{4}, FW = 134, 1M = 134g/l

Eq. = 67g/l

Eq.wt. = 67g/l = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 6.7g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M

250ml = 1.675g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

250ml 0.05M = 1.675g = 0.1N

## Titrations with Dichromate

K_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7}+ 6Fe(NH_{4})_{2}(SO_{4})_{2}+ 7H_{2}O_{4}= 3Fe_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}+ Cr_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}+ K_{2}SO_{4}+ 6(NH_{4})_{2}SO_{4}+ 7H_{2}O

Reaction of Potassium dichromate and Ammonium ferrous sulphatePotassium dichromate

K_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7}, FW = 294, 1M = 294g/l

Eq.wt. = 49g/l = 1N = 0.167M

1 liter = 4.90g/l = 0.1N = 0.0167M

250ml = 0.1.22g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

Potassium iodate

KIO_{3}, FW = 214, 1M = 214g/l

Eq.wt. = 35.73g/l = 1N = 0.167M

1 liter = 3.573g/l = 0.1N = 0.0167M

250ml = 0.892g = 0.IN or 0.0167 std. soln.

Tin, Sn,

FW = 119.0

Tin (11) chloride(use metallic tin dissolved in conc. HCl)

Eq.wt. = 59.5g/l = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 5.95g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M

250ml = 1.49g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

250ml 0.05M = 1.49g = 0.1N

Spathic iron ore

FeCO_{3}, FW = 116, 1M = 116g/l

Eq. = 116g/l

Eq.wt. = 116g/l = 1N = 1M

1 liter = 11.6g/l = 0.1N = 1M

250ml = 2.9g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.

250ml 0.1M = 2.9g = 0.1N

## Titrations with iodine and Thiosulphate

I_{2}+ 2Na_{2}S_{2}O_{3}= Na_{2}S_{4}O_{6}+ 2NaI

Reaction of Iodine and Sodium thiosulphateSodium thiosulphate

Na_{2}S_{2}O_{3}.5H_{2}O, FW = 248.18, 1M = 248.18g/l

Eq.wt. = 248.18g/l = 1N = 1M

1 liter = 24.818g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M

250ml = 6.20g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.

Potassium iodide

KI, FW = 166, 1M = 166g/l

Eq.wt. = 166g/l = 1N = 1M

1 liter = 16.6g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M

250ml = 4.15g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.

Potassium iodate

KIO_{3}, FW = 214, 1M = 214g/l

Eq.wt. = 35.73g/l = 1N = 0.167M

1 liter = 3.573/g/l = 0.1N = 0.0167M

250ml = 0.892g = 0.IN or 0.0167M std. soln.

Iodine, I_{2}

FW = 253.18, 1M = 253.18g/lg/l

Eq.wt. = 126.59g/l = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 12.659g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M (use 13 grams)

250ml = 3.16g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

1 liter 0.05M = 12.7g = 0.1N

(use 13g Iodine and add 25g KI

Copper sulphate

CuSO_{4}.5H_{2}O, FW = 249.68, 1M =249.68g/l

Eq.wt. = 249.68g/l = 1N = 1M

1 liter = 24.968g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M

250ml = 6.24g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.

Note: add anhy. NaCO3 untill a slight permanent

bluish colour is formed. Add a little acetic acid to

get a clear blue colour, then make up to the mark.Copper sulphate, anhydrous

CuSO_{4}, FW = 159.6, 1M = 159.6g/l

Eq.wt. = 159.6g/l = 1N = 1M

1 liter = 15.96g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M

250ml = 4.0g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.

Bleaching powder

CaOCl_{2}, FW = 145, 1M = 145g/l

Eq.wt. = 72.5g/l = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 7.25g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M

250ml = 1.81g (use 2.5g) = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

Sodium sulphite

Na_{2}SO_{3}.5H_{2}O, FW = 126.04, 1M = 126.04g/l

Eq.wt. = 63g/l = 1N = 0.5M

1 liter = 6.3/l = 0.1N = 0.05M

250ml = 1.57g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

## Titrations with Silver Nitrate

(1). AgNO_{3}+ NaCl = AgCl = NaNO_{3}and K_{2}CrO_{4}+ 2AgNO_{3}= Ag_{2}CrO_{4}+ 2KNO_{3}

(2). AgNO_{3}+ KSCN = AgSCN + KNO_{3}and AgSCN + Fe^{3+}indicator = [FeSCN]^{+2}Silver nitrate

AgNO_{3}, FW = 170, Eq. =170g/l

250ml 0.1M = 4.25g = 0.1N

Sodium chloride

NaCl, FW = 58.5, 1M = 58.5g/l

Eq.wt. = 58.5g/l = 1N = 1M

1 liter = 5.85g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M

250ml = 1.4625g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.

Potassium chromate

K_{2}CrO_{4}, FW = 194.20, 1M = 194.20g/l

Eq.wt. = 32.4g/l = 1N = 0.167M

1 liter = 3.24g/l = 0.1N = 0.0167M

250ml = 0.81g = 0.IN or 0.0167M std. soln.

(add a few mls dil. H2SO4 to clear)

Ammonium thiocyanate

NH_{4}CNS, FW = 76.12, 1M = 76.12g/l

Eq.wt. = 76.12g/l = 1N = 1M

1 liter = 7.612g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M

250ml = 1.9g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.

Potassium thiocyanate

KCNS, FW = 97.18, 1M = 97.18g/l

Eq.wt. = 97.18g/l = 1N = 1M

1 liter = 9.718g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M (use 12g)

250ml = 2.429g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.(use 3g)

Email About Main index Copyright Disclaimer

Signature : Delloyd's Lab Tech resources, reagents and Instrumentation