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Volumetric Analysis Standard solutions.


Preparation of 250ml 0.05M and 0.1N Volumetric analysis titration Standards


This page gives info on the weight of salt required to make up 250 ml volumetric analysis standards for titration against acid base, permanganate, dichromate, iodine, sodium thiosulphate and silver nitrate. Concentrations are expressed in molarity, normality and equivalents.

Example for the info on this page:

Sodium carbonate
Na2CO3, FW = 106, 1M = 106g/l
Eq.wt. = 53g/l = 1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 5.30g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M
250ml = 1.325g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

In this example, the FW or Formula weight (Molecular weight) of the salt is 106. Eq.wt. is the equivalent weight which is 53 grams per liter. And 1.325 grams dissolved up to mark in 250 ml volumetric flask will give a 0.05 M standard solution or a 0.1N standard solution.

Acid / Base Titrations


Ammonium sulphate
NH4)2SO4. FW = 132.14, 1M = 132.14g/l
Eq.wt. = 66.07g/l = 1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 6.607g/l = 0.1N =0.05M
250ml = 1.652g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.
Adipic acid
HO2C(CH2)4CO2H FW = 146.4, 1M = 146.4g/l
Eq.wt. = 73.03g/l =1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 7.303g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M
250ml = 1.83g = 0.1N or 0.05M std. soln.
Barium hydroxide
Ba(OH)2.8H2O, FW = 315.48, 1M = 315.48g/l
Eq.wt. = 157.5g/l = 1N or 0.5M
1 liter = 15.75g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M
250ml = 3.94g =0.1N or 0.05M std. soln.
Benzoic acid
C6H5COOH, FW = 122.12, 1M = 122.12g/l
Eq.wt. = 61.06g/l = 1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 6.106g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M
250ml = 1.52g = 0.1N or 0.05M std. soln.
Calcium carbonate
CaCO3, FW = 100.00, 1M = 100g/l
Eq.wt. = 50g/l = 1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 5.0g/l = 0.1N =0.05M
250ml = 1.25g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.
Furroic acid
FW = 112.08, 1M = 112.08g/l
Eq.wt. = 112.08 = 1N = 1M
1 liter = 11.2g/l = 0.1N =0.1M
250ml = 2.8g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.
Hydrochloric acid
HCl, FW = 36.5, Density = 1.2
1M = 83mls = 1N = 1M (Use 86mls)
250ml = 2mls = 0.1N = 0.1N
1 liter = 8.6mls = 0.1N or 0.1M soln.
Oxalic acid
H2C2O4.2H2O, FW = 126.07, 1M = 126.07g/l
Eq.wt. = 63.03g/l = 1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 6.303g/l = 0.1N =0.05M
250ml = 1.575g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.
Potassium hydrogen phthalate
KH(C8H4O4), FW = 204.23, 1M 204.23g/l
Eq.wt. = 204.23g/l = 1N = 1M
1 liter = 204.23g/l = 0.1N =0.1M
250ml = 5.105g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.
Potassiun hydrogen iodate
KH(IO3)2, FW = 389.92, 1M = 389.82g/l
Eq.wt. = 77.98g/l = 1N = 0.2M
1 liter = 7.798g/l = 0.1N =0.02M
250ml = 1.95g = 0.IN or 0.02M std. soln.
Sodium carbonate
Na2CO3, FW = 106, 1M = 106g/l
Eq.wt. = 53g/l = 1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 5.30g/l = 0.1N =0.05M
250ml = 1.325g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.
Sodium hydroxide
NaOH, FW = 40, 1M = 40g/l
Eq.wt. = 40.00g/l = 1N = 1M
1 liter = 4.0g/l = 0.1N =0.1M
250ml = 1.00g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.
Sodium oxalate
Na2C2O4, FW = 134.00, 1M = 134g/l
Eq.wt. = 134g/l = 1N = 1M
1 liter = 13.40g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M
250ml = 3.35g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.
Sodium tetraborate
NaB4O7.10H2O, FW = 381.37, 1M = 381.37g/l
Eq.wt. = 190.685g/l = 1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 190.68g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M
250ml = 4.767g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.
Succinic acid
HO2CCH2CH2CO2H, FW = 118.09, 1M = 118.09g/l
Eq.wt. = 59.045g/l = 1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 5.9.045g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M
250ml = 1.475g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.
Sulphamic acid
H2NSO3H, FW = 97.09, 1M = 97.09g/l
Eq.wt. = 97.09g/l = 1N = 1M
1 liter = 9.709g/l = 0.1N =0.1M
250ml = 2.427g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.
Sulphuric acid
H2SO4, FW = 98.08, Density = 1.8
1 liter = 56mls = 2N = 1M
1 liter = 28mls = 1N = 0.05M
1 liter = 2.8mls = 0.1N or 0.05M (use 3 mls)
250ml = 0.7mls = 0.1N = 0.05M std.
Tris (hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane
H2N.C(CH2OH)3, FW = 121.14, 1M = 121.14g/l
Eq.wt. = 121.14g/l = 1N = 1M
1 liter = 12.114g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M
250ml = 3.023g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.

Titrations with Permanganate


5Na2C2O4 + 2KMnO4 + 8H2SO4 = 10CO2 + 2MnSO4 + 5Na2SO4 + 8H2O
Reaction of Potassium permanganate and Sodium oxalate
Ammonium oxalate
(NH4)2C2O4, FW = 124, 1M = 124g/l
Eq.wt. = 62g/l = 1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 6.20g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M
250ml = 1.55g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.
Ferrous ammonium sulphate
FeSO4(NH4)2SO4.6H2O, FW = 392, 1M = 392g/l
Eq.wt. = 392g/l = 1N = 1M
1 liter = 39.20g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M
250ml = 9.8g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln. (add a few drops of conc. H2SO4 to clear)
Hhdrogen peroxide
H2O2, FW = 34. Eq. = 17g/l
10 Vol. = 3%
20 Vol. = 6% = 1.8M
100 Vol. = 30%
250ml 0.05M = 12.50ml of 20 Vol. = 0.1N
1 liter 0.05M = 50ml of 20 Vol. = 0.1N (add 2 mls conc. H2SO4 per liter soln)
Volume strength = 11.2/34 x strength of peroxide in g/l
Iron allum (ferric ammonium sulphate)
FeNH4(SO4)2.12H2O, FW = 482.19, 1M = 482.19g/l
Eq.wt. = 241g/l = 1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 24.10g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M
250ml = 6.02g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.
Oxalic acid (anhyd.)
H2C2O4, FW = 90, 1M = 90gm/l
Eq.wt. = 45g/l = 1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 4.5g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M
250ml = 1.125g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.
Potassium permanganate
KMnO4, FW =158.04, 1M = 158.04g/l
Eq. ==31.6g/l
Eq.wt. = 31.6g/l = 1N = 0.2M
1 liter = 3.16g/l = 0.1N = 0.02M (boil to dissolve crystals, then dilute to 1 liter)
250ml = 0.79g = 0.IN or 0.02M std. soln.(dissolve in hot water)
Sodium nitrite
NaNO2, FW = 69.00, 1M = 69g/l
Eq. = 34.56/l
Eq.wt. = 34.56g/l = 1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 3.456g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M
250ml = 0.86g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln. (use 1 gram)
250ml 0.05M = 0.86g = 0.1N (use 1g)

Sodium oxalate
Na2C204, FW = 134, 1M = 134g/l
Eq. = 67g/l
Eq.wt. = 67g/l = 1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 6.7g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M
250ml = 1.675g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.
250ml 0.05M = 1.675g = 0.1N

Titrations with Dichromate


K2Cr2O7 + 6Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 + 7H2O4 = 3Fe2(SO4)3 + Cr2(SO4)3 + K2SO4 + 6(NH4)2SO4 + 7H2O
Reaction of Potassium dichromate and Ammonium ferrous sulphate
Potassium dichromate
K2Cr2O7, FW = 294, 1M = 294g/l
Eq.wt. = 49g/l = 1N = 0.167M
1 liter = 4.90g/l = 0.1N = 0.0167M
250ml = 0.1.22g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.
Potassium iodate
KIO3, FW = 214, 1M = 214g/l
Eq.wt. = 35.73g/l = 1N = 0.167M
1 liter = 3.573g/l = 0.1N = 0.0167M
250ml = 0.892g = 0.IN or 0.0167 std. soln.
Tin, Sn,
FW = 119.0
Tin (11) chloride (use metallic tin dissolved in conc. HCl)
Eq.wt. = 59.5g/l = 1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 5.95g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M
250ml = 1.49g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.
250ml 0.05M = 1.49g = 0.1N

Spathic iron ore
FeCO3, FW = 116, 1M = 116g/l
Eq. = 116g/l
Eq.wt. = 116g/l = 1N = 1M
1 liter = 11.6g/l = 0.1N = 1M
250ml = 2.9g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.
250ml 0.1M = 2.9g = 0.1N


Titrations with iodine and Thiosulphate


I2 + 2Na2S2O3 = Na2S4O6 + 2NaI
Reaction of Iodine and Sodium thiosulphate
Sodium thiosulphate
Na2S2O3.5H2O, FW = 248.18, 1M = 248.18g/l
Eq.wt. = 248.18g/l = 1N = 1M
1 liter = 24.818g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M
250ml = 6.20g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.
Potassium iodide
KI, FW = 166, 1M = 166g/l
Eq.wt. = 166g/l = 1N = 1M
1 liter = 16.6g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M
250ml = 4.15g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.
Potassium iodate
KIO3, FW = 214, 1M = 214g/l
Eq.wt. = 35.73g/l = 1N = 0.167M
1 liter = 3.573/g/l = 0.1N = 0.0167M
250ml = 0.892g = 0.IN or 0.0167M std. soln.
Iodine, I2
FW = 253.18, 1M = 253.18g/lg/l
Eq.wt. = 126.59g/l = 1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 12.659g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M (use 13 grams)
250ml = 3.16g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.
1 liter 0.05M = 12.7g = 0.1N
(use 13g Iodine and add 25g KI
Copper sulphate
CuSO4.5H2O, FW = 249.68, 1M =249.68g/l
Eq.wt. = 249.68g/l = 1N = 1M
1 liter = 24.968g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M
250ml = 6.24g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.
Note: add anhy. NaCO3 untill a slight permanent
bluish colour is formed. Add a little acetic acid to
get a clear blue colour, then make up to the mark.
Copper sulphate, anhydrous
CuSO4, FW = 159.6, 1M = 159.6g/l
Eq.wt. = 159.6g/l = 1N = 1M
1 liter = 15.96g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M
250ml = 4.0g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.
Bleaching powder
CaOCl2, FW = 145, 1M = 145g/l
Eq.wt. = 72.5g/l = 1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 7.25g/l = 0.1N = 0.05M
250ml = 1.81g (use 2.5g) = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.
Sodium sulphite
Na2SO3.5H2O, FW = 126.04, 1M = 126.04g/l
Eq.wt. = 63g/l = 1N = 0.5M
1 liter = 6.3/l = 0.1N = 0.05M
250ml = 1.57g = 0.IN or 0.05M std. soln.

Titrations with Silver Nitrate


(1). AgNO3 + NaCl = AgCl = NaNO3 and K2CrO4 + 2AgNO3 = Ag2CrO4 + 2KNO3
(2). AgNO3 + KSCN = AgSCN + KNO3 and AgSCN + Fe3+ indicator = [FeSCN]+2
Silver nitrate
AgNO3, FW = 170, Eq. =170g/l
250ml 0.1M = 4.25g = 0.1N

Sodium chloride
NaCl, FW = 58.5, 1M = 58.5g/l
Eq.wt. = 58.5g/l = 1N = 1M
1 liter = 5.85g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M
250ml = 1.4625g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.
Potassium chromate
K2CrO4, FW = 194.20, 1M = 194.20g/l
Eq.wt. = 32.4g/l = 1N = 0.167M
1 liter = 3.24g/l = 0.1N = 0.0167M
250ml = 0.81g = 0.IN or 0.0167M std. soln.
(add a few mls dil. H2SO4 to clear)
Ammonium thiocyanate
NH4CNS, FW = 76.12, 1M = 76.12g/l
Eq.wt. = 76.12g/l = 1N = 1M
1 liter = 7.612g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M
250ml = 1.9g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.
Potassium thiocyanate
KCNS, FW = 97.18, 1M = 97.18g/l
Eq.wt. = 97.18g/l = 1N = 1M
1 liter = 9.718g/l = 0.1N = 0.1M (use 12g)
250ml = 2.429g = 0.IN or 0.1M std. soln.(use 3g)